Mark
the Cryptic Gospel

The Origin of Christianity

by Audrey Fletcher

Copyright 1982

Updated 2014
"The Gospel of Mark", is generally considered to be a badly constructed, partial
biography of Jesus Christ, with the result that it has little attention paid to it. However
it’s importance is conceded by the fact that it is included among the books of the New
from "Mark" that the other Gospel writers collected material for the basis of their from
"Mark" that the other Gospel writers collected material for the basis of their works.

Until recently it was considered that the author of "Mark" was Peter’s interpreter, in as
much as he communicated through his Gospel the preaching of Peter. This view has
since been superseded by the opinion that "Mark" is nothing more than a collection of
material associated with early Christian tradition. For example: parables, miracles,
conflict stories and prophecies concerning the end.

It would follow therefore that the author of "Mark" was merely a collector and
assembler of such material into an acceptable work of literature and that as such his
real identity was of negligible importance.

Regarding the dating of "Mark", Church tradition accepts that it was written for Gentile
Christians either during Peter’s ministry in Rome 62 to 64 AD, or following upon his
death. Moreover, because "Mark 13" appears to anticipate the Fall of Jerusalem in
70AD it is reasoned that it must have been written before that event. These are the
arguments used to date "Mark" to having been written between 62AD and 70AD.
In reality the only definite information pertaining to "Mark"
was that it was the first Gospel composed and that it was
written in the colloquial Greek of the Alexandrian Jews.
Part One: The Jews of Alexandria
Taking this into account "Mark" now favours not Christians, but Jews. And yet not all
Jews, for the
hidden message within the cryptic Gospel is directed by a Jew of
Alexandria specifically towards the Jews of Alexandria, Hellenized Jews
. The latter is
confirmed by the fact that the version of the Jewish Scriptures quoted in "Mark" is the
Greek Septuagint.

The reader may be wondering why the Jews of Alexandria were so deeply immersed in
the Greek rather than the Hebrew language at this time.
The origins date back to
332BC when, after the conquest of Alexander the Great, many Jews flocked to
Alexandria attracted by both the Greek attainments in literature and science, and also
the Greek culture. There were two main consequences of this. Firstly, the descendants
of these Jews grew up speaking Greek instead of Hebrew. Secondly, these now Greek
speaking Jews were failing to adhere to the Torah - the first five books of the Old
Testament - and so the necessity for it’s translation into Greek was realized and
undertaken. It was this translation which became known as the Greek Septuagint.

A prominent example of a Hellenized Jew is Herod, son of Antipater. Better known
today as
"Herod the Great" he was procurator of Judaea under Julius Caesar, and
king under Augustus. He held with everything that was Greek , but … he was
nevertheless a Jew. He was in a perfect position to heal wounds between the Jews
and Rome but he chose not to do so. He paid heed only to self interest; it was his
ambition to become a great Hellenistic king. Upon coming to power he placed a
prohibition on any Jewish politics. He alone ruled , and, through him, Rome.
As a result
of this political suppression Jewish politics went underground. Secret organizations
were set up with a view to gaining Independence for the Jews.
Meanwhile Herod
surrounded himself with Greeks, including a Greek advisor Nicolas of Damascus,
Greek culture and Greek philosophy. To fulfil his ambition of being remembered as a
great Hellenistic king he was responsible for the building of Greek temples and
amphitheatres, he laid the foundations of new Greek cities and rebuilt ruined ones, and
made large financial contributions to the Olympic Games. It is no wonder that he was
called "Herod the Great" by the Greeks.

Jerusalem - perhaps he was hoping to Hellenize some of them - but more importantly
he undertook to
rebuild the Temple. This was met with suspicion, the Jews fearing that
once their old Temple (known as the Second Temple and built by the Jews who had
returned from Exile in Babylon) was torn down, it would not be rebuilt. To allay these
suspicions the Third Temple, known as
Herod’s Temple, was built around it. It was
only pulled down when the new building was finished!

The pains which Herod took to appease the Jews were negated when on his orders a
huge golden eagle was placed above the main gateway to the Temple complex …
presumably to pacify Rome.
Jews do not tolerate graven images, neither was it to their
liking to be reminded of their subjugation by Rome. Consequently when they heard
rumours that Herod was dying a band of them tore down the graven image of the
eagle, the offensive symbol of Rome. About forty were arrested and burned alive.
Herod was later given the title "Herod the Wicked" by the Jews.
Part Two:The Author of "Mark"
The key to the cryptic Gospel of "Mark" is the author. To whom then among the
influential Jews of Alexandria in the first century AD could be attributed the
composition of "Mark", and what was his purpose? The only possible candidate is
Philo of Alexandria.

Philo of Alexandria was born in 25BC and died about 40AD.He was an influential
Jewish philosopher who is world renowned for his attempt to reconcile the Jewish
Scriptures with Greek philosophy. He met with triumphant success in "Mark".

Philo, being himself an Alexandrian Jew, readily perceived, acknowledged and
understood the psychological plight suffered by many of his fellow Alexandrian Jews,
especially among the youth. They were attracted by the Greek attainments in literature,
science and philosophy, they spoke Greek, and, to all intents and purposes they were
Greek. Yet still they were Jews. Turmoil and a rending of the soul were experienced;
Greek culture and philosophy pulling in one direction, Judaism in the other. The
Alexandrian Jews had a choice to make: they could either be torn between the two and
be of good to neither, or, to maintain stability in their lives they could forsake the one
for the other. All too often Judaism was forsaken.

It was this religious crisis which initiated the composition of "Mark" in which Philo
achieved a reconciliation of the Jewish Scriptures with Greek philosophy. A
reconciliation was preferable to a complete rejection and abandonment of the One God
in favour of pagan practices. Viewed in this light "Mark" is the successful Hellenization
of Judaism.
In seeking the means to establish and
impart this reconciliation Philo created
Jesus as his vehicle.
Firstly, Jesus would
follow in the literary traditions of Socrates.
Secondly, Jesus would be the literary
personification of the Logos.
Firstly,  Jesus follows in the literary tradition of Socrates.
Philo considered Socrates to be the literary creation of Plato through whom Plato
expressed and conveyed his own philosophical ideas without fear of redress to
himself.
Plato’s philosophical ideas centred around the nature of the Good, the Ideal
State (Atlantis), the Soul and Immortality, and the highest realities of Universal Truth
and Universal Justice. Hmmm … I’m beginning to wonder if Plato was a Freemason!

Similarly Jesus would be the literary creation of Philo, through whom Philo could
convey his own philosophical ideas.

That Jesus is a literary creation fulfilling the same role as Socrates, as perceived by
Philo, is established by the fact that Philo left us a clue, a lead to follow .
The partial
biography of Jesus as portrayed in "Mark" is based on the life of Socrates as created
by Plato.
Many readers will be no doubt aware that there are two schools of thought
concerning Socrates … firstly, that he was a real person, and secondly, that he was the
literary creation of Plato. The debate continues even now.
However, what is important
is that we remember that Philo considered Socrates to be a literary creation.

Socrates is credited with having lived from 469 to 399BC. He was trained by his father
to be a
stonecutter but he remained in this profession for only a few years. During
military service he showed the
capacity to bear suffering with patience and fortitude;
he had a strength of mind which enabled him to meet danger and endure pain with
calmness. For example, during a spell of severe frost Socrates marched in his bare feet.

His complete control over his physical nature indicated that, symbolically the
Charioteer had perfect mastery over his team … Plato maintained that the immaterial
soul could be alleged as having three immaterial parts, and that it was this
tripartite
nature of the soul
which caused the conflict within the person. He compared the
highest, the rational part, which had a passion for Truth, to a Charioteer. The lowest,
which had sensual passions, he compared to an unruly horse who did not obey the
Charioteer, with the result that a whip had to be used on him to bring him into line. To
complete the team there is a good horse who does obey the Charioteer. Also Socrates
considered that the soul, not the body, is the real self and that the outer person is
merely a reflection of the inner person. Furthermore he maintained Consequently only
the wise man is rich. Evils of the soul included Unrighteousness, Immoderation, Greed,
Cowardice, Foolishness, Ignorance and Wickedness. Qualities or virtues to be aimed at
included Truth, Virtue, Goodness, Beauty and Justice.

On leaving military service
Socrates became a teacher. Being able to speak on any
subject he led his pupils in many discussions. He used a technique of constant
questions to derive a clearer understanding of a topic and often the results were
profound. This became known as the Socratic Method of Searching for Truth.

Socrates claimed that he was inspired by a divine spirit, an intermediary being acting
between the gods and people. This divine spirit was named Daimon.

The significance of Socrates having been a stonecutter and also inspired, lies in the
belief by the Ancient Greeks that
stonemasons could never be considered "gentlemen"
because working in trade did not allow the relevant leisure time for the cultivation of the
mind and body, and participation in the running of the state. Moreover, stonemasons
were never considered as having been inspired as were , for example, poets inspired
by the Muses. Stonemasons were merely good at their work. Thus only "gentlemen"
could participate in the running of state, and only "gentlemen" could be inspired. Plato,
through Socrates, was proving them wrong on both accounts. I wonder … was
Socrates a speculative as well as an operative mason?

Socrates was the
champion of the Oppressed by opposing and making enemies of the
Aristocrats and, to a lesser extent, the Sophists, who believed that Right depended
upon circumstance ... it being to their advantage.

Socrates proved their belief to be based upon error. He maintained that Universal Truth
(Right) is absolute and unchangeable, and therefore by its very nature is not
dependent upon Circumstance .Universal Truth is. ("I am that I am.") Universal Truth is
Virtue, and the highest form of principles are virtuous principles. Furthermore, in
attempting to define Universal Truth, Knowledge is being sought. Thus, declared
Socrates, Knowledge is Virtue, and Virtue is Knowledge. In addition Socrates
maintained that people shape their own destiny; it is not shaped by the gods. Thus the
wealthy are not wealthy, and the poor are not poor by divine right; the Aristocrats are
not statesmen and the poor are not oppressed by divine right.

Socrates’ open declaration of the
Rights of Man would have been viewed as a signal
for revolution, as a signal for social and political reform. The division of people into
Oppressed and Oppressors is not virtuous, it is not in accord with Universal Truth.
Right certainly does not depend upon circumstance.

As a result Socrates became unpopular with the Aristocrats and Sophists, especially
as his popularity and reputation were spreading.
His enemies sought to kill him,
claiming that he polluted people’s minds with his ideas. His enemies wanted neither a
social nor a political revolution, they had too much to lose. A Republic, a society based
upon equality was certainly not for them.

Finally Socrates was tried and condemned to death. He died by swallowing hemlock
before the sentence could be carried out.
To clarify the Socrates - Jesus connection there
follows an outline of many of the similarities
contained in the gospel of "Mark". This will be
followed by a brief summary of Jesus’ life
expressed in terms of the Socrates connection.
The Socrates  - Jesus Connection
Socrates

Socrates was trained by his father to be a
stonecutter.

Socrates was inspired by a divine spirit.



During military service Socrates had the
capacity to bear suffering with patience and
fortitude. He had a strength of mind which
enabled him to meet danger and endure pain
with calmness. He had complete control over
his physical nature.

This is an overture for Jesus’ fortitude and
endurance exhibited throughout "Mark".

During a spell of severe frost Socrates marched
in his bare feet.

Socrates maintained that the soul, not the body,
is the real self, and that the outer person is
merely a reflection of the inner person.
Contrary to popular belief the author of "Mark"
( Philo of Alexandria) does not believe in a
physical resurrection of the physical body. This
would support the age old claim that the
physical resurrection of Jesus was not part of
the original "Mark" document; that it was added
at a much later date.














Socrates maintained that the righteous soul
lived on after the death of the mortal body, the
immortality of the righteous soul.

The soul imbued with evil will surely perish.



On the evils of the soul.






On the Charioteer, the good and bad horses,
and the whip to bring the bad horses into line.





Socrates believed that only the wise man is
rich: that the righteous soul lived on after the
death of the mortal body, but that the soul
imbued with evil, with base appetitive desires,
would surely perish.



On leaving military service Socrates became a
teacher.



An aside: it is interesting that Jesus does not
begin preaching the gospel until after John the
Baptist has been put in prison. In fact, in my
analysis of "Mark" back in 1982 I concluded
that excepting the episodes concerning John
the Baptist, the "Gospel of Mark" was not what
it appeared. In other words, the episodes
concerning John the Baptist are historically
accurate. Philo of Alexandria used the historical
backdrop of John the Baptist to lend credence
to "Mark". More importantly it is an historical
marker which sets the time of the literary events
in "Mark".

Socrates led his pupils in many discussions,
often using a technique of constant questions
to derive a clearer understanding. This was
called The Socratic Method of Searching for
Truth.











Often the results are profound.







On the oppressors and the oppressed.


Socrates opposed the Sophists and the
Aristocrats.

The signal.



Socrates' reputation spread.





Socrates' enemies sought to kill him.







Socrates was tried.

Socrates was condemned to death.
A summary some of the similarities
which connected Jesus with Socrates
Socrates was trained to be a stonecutter. However he remained in this profession for
only a few years.

Socrates had the capacity to bear suffering with patience and fortitude. He had a
strength of mind which enabled him to meet danger, and endure pain, with calmness.
He had complete control over his physical nature, indicating that, symbolically the
Charioteer of the Soul had perfect mastery over his team. He taught that the righteous
soul, imbued with ideals of Truth, Justice, Goodness and Virtue, lived on after the
death of the mortal body, but that the soul imbued with evil, with base appetitive
desires, would surely perish.

On leaving military service Socrates became a teacher. Being able to speak on any
subject he led his pupils in many discussions. He used a technique of constant
questions to derive a clearer understanding of a topic and often the results were
profound. This became known as the Socratic Method of Searching for Truth.

Socrates was the champion of the Oppressed by opposing and making enemies of the
Aristocrats and, to a lesser extent, the Sophists, who believed that Right depended
upon circumstance ... it being to their advantage.

As a result Socrates became unpopular with the Aristocrats and Sophists, especially
as his popularity and reputation were spreading. His enemies sought to kill him,
claiming that he polluted people’s minds with his ideas.

Finally Socrates was tried and condemned to death.
Secondly,  Jesus as the literary personification of the Logos.
The concept of the Logos was not new to either the Greeks or the Jews. Originally the
Greek philosopher Anaxagoras invented the word "Nous", literally meaning mind or
intellect, to define the organizing principle separate from matter. Plato defined the
bridge between the gods and the material world as the immaterial world of Ideas, an
exemplar for the material world. The Jews termed this same principle "The Word" … it
was the bridge between their God and their people. "The Word" was the Light, the
Truth and the Law. This is evidenced in, for example, "O send out thy light and thy
truth" (Psalm 43 v 3) and "…the law is my light" (Proverbs 6 v 23). The "Logos" was
the invention of Philo of Alexandria, and in it he reconciled the "Nous" of the Greeks
and "The Word" of the Jews. The Logos literally means Word, but it is defined as an
intermediary between God and the world of matter, which includes people. In the
Logos, the Greek and Jewish elements were satisfied.

In "Mark" the Logos was personified. Philo gave the principle of the Logos human
characteristics and portrayed it as an intermediary being acting as a bridge between
God and his people. Philo created the literary Jesus as the personification of the
Logos. The Logos is the image of God, the shadow of God, the exemplar of creation.
The Logos is the angel of God, the messenger of God, the first-born of God. The Logos
is the Son of God.
The reconciliation of the Jewish Scriptures
with Greek philosophy for the Jews of
Alexandria, Hellenized Jews, was the sole
purpose which initiated Philo’s
composition of "Mark".
It was a new philosophy, a new way, a new
testament. It was Hellenized Judaism.
Part Three: Dating "Mark" the Cryptic Gospel
To help date "Mark" it is important to realize that Philo was following in the literary
tradition of "Daniel", which is an example of apocalyptic literature. Characteristics of
the apocalyptic literary style include: writing under a pseudonym, esoteric teachings
or secret messages, the intervention of a mediator between God and the Jews, the use
of metaphor and allegory, and disturbances in the Cosmos. The book of "Daniel" is
not what it appears , the events portrayed did not take place during the Babylonian
Exile … in fact they did not take place. The Book of Daniel is a vehicle for a hidden or
secret message. The author was a Jewish prophet, writing under the pseudonym of
Daniel, commenting upon the current situation leading up to the Maccabaean
Rebellion of 167-164BC. He was preaching at this time of severe religious crisis to give
the Jews hope of deliverance from oppression … if they remained steadfast in their
faith in God. The purpose of the cryptic "Daniel" is best realized in terms of the book of
"Daniel" falling into enemy hands: it would be misunderstood, the secret message
would remain … secret.
And so the significance for "Mark" begins to dawn. "Mark" is not
what it appears. The events recorded did not take place during
the reign of Tiberius. In fact, except for possibly the events
concerning John the Baptist, they did not take place. "Mark" is
esoteric literature, a vehicle for a hidden message. The author of
"Mark" was a Jewish prophet, writing under a pseudonym,
commenting upon a current situation. He was preaching at a
time of religious crisis to give the Jews hope of deliverance from
oppression … if they remained steadfast in their faith in God. If
"Mark" were to fall into enemy hands it would be misinterpreted,
and the secret message would remain ... secret. History has
proved only too well the success of Philo of Alexandria’s
esoteric gospel, his cryptic gospel, being misinterpreted.
In order to accurately date "Mark" it is necessary to discover the current situation
upon which Philo was commenting. Remember he would be preaching during, not
after, the event … the Oppression. Furthermore this religious oppression must have
occurred before Philo’s death. Finally these events would be recorded in episodes not
yet accounted for in terms of the reconciliation of the Jewish Scriptures with Greek
philosophy. For example:

The Triumphant Entry into Jerusalem and the Cleansing of the Temple (Mark 11)

The reference to the "abomination of desolation" (Mark 13 v 14)

Jesus’ re-trial by Pilate (Mark 15 v 1-15)

The vital key which actually dates "Mark" is the religious oppression of the
Alexandrian Jews by Caligula.
It was this oppression which drove the Jews of
Alexandria underground. This is the secret society steeped in Judaism … a secret
society full of ritual, signs and symbolism .

Gaius Caligula had become Emperor of Rome in 38AD and as a result of a suggestion
proposed by non-Jewish Alexandrians he decided to have his statue placed in Jewish
temples in Alexandria.

The non-Jewish Alexandrians had made this proposal because they feared they had
brought down the wrath of Rome upon their own heads by publicly making fun of
Caligula’s friend, Agrippa, the newly appointed King of Upper Galilee.
Agrippa had
been welcomed by the Alexandrian Jews as he passed through Alexandria because
he was of Hasmonian blood, and therefore looked upon by the Alexandrian Jews as a
liberator. ( King Herod had betrayed Hasmonian claims in order that he himself could
become King of Judaea.) A mob of non-Jewish Alexandrians, stirred up by agitators …
especially
Apion who was a self opinionated philosopher … made fun of the Jews.
They did this by revering the local idiot whom they dressed up as a
King of the Jews.
Realizing too late the enormity of what they had done, in terms of having also insulted
Agrippa, they became frightened.
The only way out of this fragile situation was to
create a smokescreen, or diversion.
They hit on the idea of demanding of the Roman
Governor of Egypt , Flaccus, that the Jews be forced to place statues of Caligula,
Emperor of Rome, in their temples to prove their loyalty to Rome. Flaccus chose to
agree with, rather than oppose, the mob. This was despite approximately forty Jews
having been burned alive for attempting to tear down the graven image of a golden
eagle above the main gateway of the Third Temple complex in Jerusalem, which had
been placed there on the orders of King Herod.

The Alexandrian Jews’ refusal to have statues of Caligula in their temples resulted in
the public floggings of prominent members of their community. Using this as a signal
the non-Jewish mob plundered and attacked many of the wealthier Jews living outside
the Jewish district.

The Alexandrian Jews were outraged: the non-Jewish Alexandrian mob had used their
treasonable act involving the local idiot to their advantage. How were they to expose
their enemies for the non-patriots that they were?

It was decided that they send a delegation to Rome to fully explain the situation ... and
leading the mission was
Philo of Alexandria.

The outcome was a forgone conclusion. Caligula, being mentally deranged,
succumbed to the flattery of the non-Jewish Alexandrians’ suggestion. (The BBC
series "I Claudius" which was based on the books by Robert Graves portray Caligula’
s madness very effectively.)

The Alexandrian Jews returned home more determined than ever to equalize against
their enemies.
Jesus

Mark 6 v 3 "Is not this the carpenter…?"


M 1 v 10 "And straightway coming out of the water,
he saw the heavens opened, and the Spirit like a
dove descending on him."

Mark 1 v12, 13 "And immediately the spirit driveth
him into the wilderness. And he was there in the
wilderness forty days, tempted of Satan; and was
with the wild beasts; and the angels ministered
into him."


This is an overture for Jesus’ fortitude and
endurance exhibited throughout "Mark".

Mark 6 v 48 " ... walking upon the sea "


Contrary to popular belief the author of "Mark" (
Philo of Alexandria) does not believe in a physical
resurrection of the physical body. This would
support the age old claim that the physical
resurrection of Jesus was not part of the original
"Mark" document; that it was added at a much
later date.
That Jesus allowed the Charioteer full control of
his soul is reflected in his crucifixion. His bodily,
sensual passions, his base appetitive desires, the
evils of his soul, were crucified in order that his
soul could rise to, and attain, loftier ideals. Ideals
for example of Truth Justice, Goodness and Virtue
(Mark 5 v 25 -34) . Ideals of Righteousness. In this
Jesus showed the way. "Whosoever will come
after me, let him deny himself, and take up his
cross, and follow me."
(Mark 8 v 34) This is the
only way that people "may inherit eternal life".
(Mark 10 v 17) It is noteworthy that all of the healing
episodes in "Mark" can be placed in the category
of the crucifixion of the unruly, appetitive,
unrighteous lower self, in order that the righteous
self may rise.

Mark 12 v 25 "For when they shall rise from the
dead . . . (they) are as the angels which art in
heaven."

Mark 3 v 29 "But he that shall blaspheme against
the Holy Ghost hath never forgiveness, but is in
danger of eternal damnation."

Mark 7 v 1-23 esp. v 20-23 ". . . from within . . .
proceed evil thoughts, adulteries, fornications,
murders, thefts, covetousness, wickedness,
deceit, lasciviousness, an evil eye, blasphemy,
pride, foolishness: All these evil things come from
within and defile the man."

In a sense, Jesus is as the Charioteer, bringing the
unruly, the unrighteous, into line by using the
metaphorical whip that "the kingdom of God is at
hand: repent ye . . .
(Mark1 v 15) Also Jesus "came
not to call the righteous, but sinners to
repentance."
(Mark2 v 17)

Mark 8 v 36,37
"For what shall it profit a man if he
shall gain the whole world , and lose his own soul?
Or what shall a man give in exchange for his soul?"

Mark 10 v 17-25 ". . . how hard it is for them that
trust in riches to enter into the kingdom of God."
(v
24)

Mark 1 v 14
Following upon his temptation in the
wilderness "after that John was put in prison,
Jesus came into Galilee, preaching the gospel of
the Kingdom of God.

An aside: it is interesting that Jesus does not
begin preaching the gospel until after John the
Baptist has been put in prison. In fact, in my
analysis of "Mark" back in 1982 I concluded that
excepting the episodes concerning John the
Baptist, the "Gospel of Mark" was not what it
appeared. In other words, the episodes
concerning John the Baptist are historically
accurate. Philo of Alexandria used the historical
backdrop of John the Baptist to lend credence to
"Mark". More importantly it is an historical marker
which sets the time of the literary events in "Mark".


Mark 3 v 4 "Is it lawful to do good on the sabbath
days, or to do evil? To save life, or to kill?

Mark 4 v 21 "Is a candle brought to be put under a
bushel, or under a bed? And not to be set on a
candle stick?"

Mark 12 v 14-16 ". . . we know that thou . . . teachest
the way of God in Truth: is it lawful to give tribute
to Caesar, or not? Shall we give, or shall we not
give? But he, knowing their hypocrisy, said to
them, Why tempt ye me? Bring me a penny that I
may see it. And they brought it. And he saith unto
them, Whose is this image and superscription?
And they said unto him, Caesar’s."

Mark 12 v 17 "And Jesus answering said unto
them, Render to Caesar the things that are Caesar’
s, and to God the things that are God’s."

Mark 4 v 22 "For there is nothing hid, which shall
not be manifested; neither was anything kept
secret, but that it should come abroad."

The oppressors in "Mark" were the Romans. The
oppressed were the Jews.

Mark 3 v 5 Jesus opposed the Pharisees, Scribes
and Herodians "for the hardness of their hearts."

Mark 13 v 14 "But when ye shall see the
abomination of desolation, spoken of by Daniel the
prophet, standing where it ought not . . ."

Mark 1 v 21 to Mark 3 v 30 For example: ". . . and a
great multitude from Galilee followed him , and
from Judaea, and from Jerusalem, and from
Idumaea, and from beyond Jordan; and they about
Tyre and Sidon, a great multitude . . ."
(Mark 3 v 7-8)

Mark 3 v 6
"And the Pharisees went forth, and
straightway took counsel with the Herodians
against him, how they might destroy him."

Mark 14 v 1 " . . . and the chief priests and the
scribes sought how they might take him by craft,
and put him to death."

Mark 14 v 53-63 Jesus was tried.

Mark 14 v 64 "... and they all condemned him to be
guilty"
Jesus was trained to be a carpenter. However he remained in this profession for only
a few years because immediately following his baptism by John, the Spirit descended
upon him, and he was driven into the wilderness, where he was tempted by Satan.

Jesus had the capacity to bear suffering with patience and fortitude. He had a strength
of mind which enabled him to meet danger, and endure pain, with calmness. He had
complete control over his physical nature.

Following his temptation in the wilderness, and after John the Baptist had been
imprisoned, Jesus became a teacher. His pupils were not only his disciples but also
the populace at large.

He opposed the Pharisees, Scribes and Herodians for the hardness of their hearts. He
was a champion of the oppressed .

As Jesus’ reputation spread his enemies sought to kill him. He was tried and
condemned. He was crucified.

That Jesus allowed the Charioteer full control of his soul is reflected in his crucifixion.
His bodily, sensual passions, his base appetitive desires, were crucified so that his
soul could rise to, and attain, loftier ideals. Ideals, for example, of Truth, Justice,
Goodness and Virtue … ideals of Righteousness. The soul, not the body, is the real
self. It is the righteous soul which lives on after the death of the mortal body. The soul
imbued with evil is in danger of eternal damnation. Jesus believed that only the wise
are rich, for what shall it profit people if they gain the whole world and lose their souls.
In keeping with the purpose of apocalyptic
literature Philo was writing at a time of great
religious and political crisis. He clearly
recorded these events in "Mark" for those
initiated into the underground movement …
"Let him that readeth understand"
(Mark 13 v 14). Those readers of non-
Alexandrian Jewish background would
misinterpret the text.
References in "Mark" to the Oppression
of the Jews, under Caligula.
Jewish Oppression Under Caligula


Agrippa is welcomed by the Jews as he passes
through Alexandria.





The non-Jewish Alexandrians mock the actions
of the Jews by dressing up the local idiot and
worshipping him as King of the Jews.




The statue of Caligula is to be placed in the
Jewish Temples in Alexandria.



Instruction to be followed in the event of
Caligula’s statue being placed in the Jewish
Temples in Alexandria.


Flaccus chose to agree with the non-Jewish
Alexandrian mob.


Do not allow Caligula’s statue to desecrate the
temples.


Philo’s mission to Caligula: the hoped for
successful outcome.



Defeat looms over Philo and his delegation.


Philo’s mission was unsuccessful.


The sanctity of the temples in Alexandria would
be profaned.
Jewish Oppression Under Caligula
referenced in "Mark"

Mark 11 v 8-10 "And many spread their garments
in the way and others cut down branches off the
trees, and strawed them in the way. And they
went before and they that followed, cried,
Hosanna; Blessed is he that cometh in the name
of the Lord."

Mark 15 v17-32 ... eg v 17-19 "And they clothed
him with purple, and platted a crown of thorns,
and put it about his head, And began to salute
him, Hail King of the Jews! And they smote him
on the head with a reed, and did spit upon him,
and bowing their knees worshipped him."

Mark 13 v 14 "But when ye shall see the
abomination of desolation, spoken of by Daniel
the prophet, standing where it ought not, (let him
that readeth understand)"
.
Mark 13 ... eg v14 " ... flee to the mountains ..."




Mark 15 v 1-15 ... eg v 15 "And so Pilate, willing
to content the people, released Barabas ..."


Mark 12 v 17 "Render to Caesar the things that
are Caesar’s, and to God the things that are
God’s."

Mark 5 v 1-20 Legion, possessed with the devil
but later clothed in his right mind, represents
Caligula. "Come out of the man, thou unclean
spirit."

Mark 15 v 33 " ... there was darknessover the
whole land ..."

Mark 15 v 34 "My God, my God, why hast thou
forsaken me?"

Mark 15 v 38 "And the veil of the temple was rent
in twain from top to bottom"
The Gospel of Mark and the Maccabaean Rebellion
The cryptic message recorded in "Mark" does not end with The Oppression of the Jews
under Caligula.
Philo had recognized that the Maccabaean Rebellion of 167-164BC was a
blueprint for the events which occurred in Alexandria in 39-40AD. It was History repeating
itself.
Consequently Philo considered himself justified in incorporating events of the
Maccabaean Rebellion into his cryptic gospel.

The
Maccabaean Rebellion had its seeds in Syria’s attempt to reunite the conquests of
Alexander the Great. Syria however was foiled in her attempt by Rome with the result that
she had to pay financial penalties as a condition of peace. And where was this money to
come from?
The Temple at Jerusalem! The Temple was violated but the attempt to steal
the money stored there failed. The Syrians did not give up. They removed the High Priest
of the Temple so that pro-Hellenized Syrians could take over.

Meanwhile there was a new Syrian ruler,
Antiochus IV, and he was welcomed by the pro-
Syrians in Judaea. Antiochus considered himself as "the visible god" - Epiphanes. To the
people however, he became known as "the madman" - Epimanes.

When the pro-Syrians approached Antiochus with a plan for Hellenizing Judaea , he
agreed. Everything went according to plan, the High Priest was removed from the Temple
in Jerusalem and he was replaced by a Hellenized Jew. Although
Judaism fell into neglect
among the priesthood as a result,
many common Jews remained staunch in their faith.
Antiochus therefore directed that Judaism be wiped out.

Jerusalem was attacked and many Jews were killed, but some managed to flee to the hills.
Circumcision and observance of the Sabbath were prohibited, and
in the Temple of
Jerusalem was placed a statue of Jupiter
. Many observed that the facial features of the
statue of Jupiter were not unlike those of Antiochus.

The remaining Jews were desolate. All hope had gone. They felt deserted, forlorn and
forsaken. They could not fight because they had no military leader, they were not a warlike
people. Yet rather than deny their God and embrace Hellenism thousands of Jews either
fled to the hills or died as martyrs.

There were however a minority of Jews who went over to the enemy to save their skins.
They embraced Hellenism and they became informers, betraying the pious Jews
whenever the opportunity arose.

A resistance movement was established among the Jews but the informers betrayed their
one weakness: observance of the Sabbath. Consequently when the Jews were attacked
on the Sabbath they did not raise arms against the enemy. All seemed lost. Everyone
thought that Judaism would be obliterated.

Yet a ray of hope loomed on the horizon … In 167BC, in the town of Modin to the north-
west of Jerusalem, the Jews were awaiting the oncoming Syrians with dread. When the
day arrived, the Syrian soldiers built an altar in the market square. On this altar a pig was
to be sacrificed to Jupiter in Antiochus’ honour. When
Mattathias Hashmonaim, a Jewish
Hasmonian priest, refused to perform the sacrifice, a Hellenized Jewish informer offered
to do so. Immediately Mattathias sprang into action: he snatched a sword from a Syrian
soldier and plunged it into the Hellenized Jew who had betrayed them. A fight ensued in
which the Jews were the victors.
They tore down the altar.

Jews from surrounding areas gave their support to the Hasmonian family and, in defence
of Judaism, they attacked small groups of Syrian soldiers and Hellenized Jews.
They
decided that they would no longer abstain from fighting on the Sabbath - if provoked.
However they would not initiate an attack on the Sabbath. It was under the leadership of
the Hasmonian family that the Jews fought for freedom of worship and Independence.

When in the following year Mattathias died, his leadership and authority were transferred
to his son Judah, nicknamed
Judah Maccabee. He soon proved to be an inspired military
leader when, under his command, the Jews won many victories over their enemies. They
grew confident that Judaism would not be wiped out. They would not be defeated.

Antiochus commanded that the Maccabean Rebellion be quashed, but his appointee
Lysias underestimated his opponents. With a surprise night attack the Jews wiped out the
Syrian Army. With victory under their belts
the Jews made a triumphant entry into
Jerusalem and immediately proceeded to cleanse the Temple.
Three years had elapsed since the
statue of Jupiter had desecrated the
Temple … and now the Temple was
again dedicated to God.
References in "Mark" to the Maccabaean Rebellion
The events of the Maccabaean Rebellion are clearly recorded by Philo in the cryptic
Gospel of Mark. It is this inclusion which explains why Judaea was chosen as the setting
for "Mark" -  despite the current events upon which Philo was commenting, taking place
in Alexandria.
The Maccabaean Rebellion


A statue of Jupiter, resembling Antiochus, was
placed in the Temple at Jerusalem. Antiochus
had decreed that Judaism be wiped out, and so
many Jews fled to the hills.


The Jews were desolate. It was their darkest
hour.

The Jews felt forsaken in their darkest hour.


The divided house of the Jews.


Hellenized Jews act as informers, betraying the
Hasidim.








When the Jews were attacked on the Sabbath
they did not raise arms against the enemy.
However under the Hasmonian leadership they
no longer abstained from fighting on the
Sabbath - if they were provoked.



Mattathias Hasmonian snatched the sword of a
Syrian soldier and plunged it into the Hellenized
Jew who had betrayed them.

The Jews made a triumphant entry into
Jerusalem.







The cleansing of the Temple in Jerusalem,
including a reference to the statue of Jupiter
which resembled Antiochus.
The Maccabaean Rebellion
referenced in "Mark"

Mark 13 v 14 "But when ye shall see the
abomination of desolation, spoken of by Daniel
the prophet, standing where it ought not (let him
that readeth understand) then let them that be in
Judaea flee to the mountains."

Mark 15 v 33 " ... there was darkness over the
whole land ..."

Mark 15 v 34 "My god, my g God, why hast thou
forsaken me?"

Mark 3 v 23-35 eg v 25 "And if a house be
divided against itself, that house cannot stand."

Mark 14 The Betrayal Chapter.

"And Judas Iscariot, one of the twelve, went
unto the chief priests, to betray him unto them.
And when they heard it, they were glad, and
promised to give him money ..."
(Mark 14 v 10,11)

The rest of the disciples also betray Jesus: "And
they all forsook him and fled."
(Mark 14 v 50)

Mark 1 v 21-34

Mark 2 v 23-28

Mark 3 v 1-5 esp Mark 3 v 4
" ... Is it lawful to do
good on the Sabbath days, or to do evil? to save
life, or to kill?"

Mark 14 v 46,47 "and one of them that stood by
drew a sword ..."


Mark 11 The Triumph Chapter.

Mark 11 v 1-10 eg v 8,9 "And many spread their
garments in the way: and others cut down
branches off the trees, and strawed them in the
way. And they went before, and they that
followed, cried, saying, Hosanna; blessed is he
that cometh in the name of the Lord."

Mark 11 v 11- 33 "And Jesus entered into
Jerusalem and into the temple ... and began to
cast out them that sold and bought in the
temple, and overthrew the tables of the
moneychangers ... and would not suffer that any
man should carry any vessel through the
temple."
Philo believed that History repeated itself in cycles. Freedom of worship had been restored
to the Jews of Judaea in 164BC after three years of rebellion. Twenty-two years later, in
suggesting that, within three years of 39AD, freedom of worship would be restored to the
Jews of Alexandria. He fully expected this freedom of worship to last for twenty-two years.
At the end of this time, in 64AD, Philo believed they would be granted independence.

As it happened, Caligula was assassinated and the Jews of Alexandria were restored their
religious freedom in January 41AD, a year earlier than Philo had estimated.
These episodes
are not recorded in "Mark" … which indicates that "Mark" was written before the
assassination of Caligula; before 41AD.

Unfortunately Philo died in 40AD. The Alexandrian Jews - the followers of Philo and his New
Testament, the members of his underground movement - were bereft; they were left without
a leader.

Not too long afterwards Paul came on the scene … and the rest is history. He misinterpreted
"Mark" and established Christianity on a false premise.

The full cycle of History for the Jews was not completed until 1948 AD when they were
given their Independence with the establishment of the Republic of Israel.
Philo of Alexandria incorporated events of the Maccabaean Rebellion into his cryptic, or
secret, gospel for two main reasons. Firstly as a tribute to the Maccabees and their
victory in the face of all odds, and secondly to give the Alexandrian Jews hope in the face
of the current religious oppression under Caligula. Most importantly, only the Alexandrian
Jews would be able to interpret "Mark" correctly:
"Unto you is given to know the mystery . . . but unto them

that are without, all these things are done in parables:

That seeing they may see, and not perceive: and hearing

they may hear, and not understand."
(Mark 4 v 11-12)
Part Four:
The esoteric "Gospel of Mark" is no longer a mystery.
It was written by Philo of Alexandria in two stages.
1) The first stage of "Mark", which included the reconciliation of Jewish Scriptures
with Greek philosophy, a New Testament, was composed after the beheading of John the
Baptist by Herod, son of Herod the Great, in 28AD.

Clearly Philo held John the Baptist in high esteem. Were they good friends, were they
perhaps related, was Philo a follower of John? Did they discuss philosophy and
apocalyptic literature? Certainly both were concerned with apocalyptic literature; the end of
the world, repentance and the Day of Judgement.

Interestingly, John the Baptist, according to Solomon Grayzel in "A History of the Jews",
was a member of a secret society. This was despite his being "clothed with camel’s hair,
and with a girdle of skin about his loins." (Mark 1 v 6) Grayzel claims that John the Baptist
was a member of a Jewish religious sect called the Essenes, a sect which can possibly be
traced back to the era of the Maccabaean Rebellion. Members of the Essene Community
usually dressed in white and bathed frequently, because they believed - like Philo and Plato
before him - that the outer man was a reflection of the inner man. The white robes and the
cleanliness were outward symbols of inner purity. The Essenes had an air of mystery about
them. They kept themselves to themselves, living apart from non-Essenes in their own
communities. It was commonly believed that they possessed secret knowledge … a belief
which was promoted by the difficulty a person had in becoming a member of the group. A
candidate had to give up all worldly possessions and was required to complete one year’s
probation. It will not come as a surprise that the initiation ceremony was carried out in
secret.

This will sound all too familiar to Freemasons. The air of mystery, the perceived difficulty of
becoming a member, the secret initiation ceremony - the First Degree - with the white
clothing and lack of personal possessions, and the secret knowledge. Today there may not
be a one year probationary period, but certainly in times gone by an apprentice had to serve
his time. And so we are left wondering … were Essenes Freemasons? Was John the Baptist
a Freemason?

2) The second stage of "Mark" was written in 39-40AD, in the style of apocalyptic
literature, to give the Alexandrian Jews hope and advice at a time of severe religious
oppression under Caligula.

During the time of their oppression under Caligula, the Alexandrian Jewish underground
movement led by Philo of Alexandria would, characteristically, have had its secret signs,
words and knocks. Not unlike Freemasons today. Also the members would have celebrated
their past glories in their ritual and symbolism: past glories such as the building of King
Solomon’s Temple a thousand years earlier or their release from captivity in Babylon by
Cyrus in 536BC, followed by the building of the Second Temple. This would have been their
sustenance in their darkest hour.

These same events are celebrated by Freemasons in their ritual today ... Freemasonry is a
secret society steeped in Judaism, and full of secret signs, ritual and symbolism.

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Copyright 1982


Updated 2014
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2012